Equal Justice Initiative Museum. Photo courtesy of Jeff Van Hanken.

READINGS- Books/Journals/Dissertations 

Babiarz, Jennifer

  1. White Privilege and Silencing within the Heritage Landscape: Race and the Practice of Cultural Resources Management. In The Materiality of Freedom: Archaeologies of Post-Emancipation Life, edited by Jodi Barnes, pp. 47–58. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.

Bachelier, Samanthé

  1. Hidden History: The Whitewashing of the 1917 East St. Louis Race Riot in the Collective Consciousness of the Greater St. Louis Metro Region. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Edwardsville, Illinois, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.

Barnett, Ida Wells B. 

  1. On Lynchings. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books.

Blaisdell, Lowell L.

  1. “Anatomy of an Oklahoma Lynching: Bryan County, August 12–13, 1911,” The Chronicles of Oklahoma 79 (1).

Bridges, Sara T., and Bert Salwen

  1. Weeksville: The Archaeology of a Black Urban Community. In Archaeological Perspectives on Ethnicity in America: Afro-American and Asian American Culture History, edited by R. L. Schuyler, pp. 38–47. Farmingdale, NY: BaywoodPublishing.

Brundage, W. Fitzhugh

  1. Under Sentence of Death. Lynching in the South. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Campney, Brent

  1. This is Not Dixie: Racist Violence in Kansas, 1861-1927. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Carrigan, William D.

  1. The Making of a Lynching Culture: Violence and Vigilantism in Central Texas, 1836-1916. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Catte, Elizabeth R.

  1. “No Deed but Memory”: The Public History of American Race Riots. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Middle Tennessee State University.

Clark Kiktode, Charles N.

  1. Lynchings in Oklahoma: Vigilantism and Racism in the Twin Territories and Oklahoma, 1830–1930. Oklahoma City, OK: Published by Author.

Collins, Ann V.

  1. “All Hell Broke Loose”: A Comparative Analysis of American Race Riots from the Progressive Era through World War II. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. St. Louis, Missouri, Washington University.

Cunningham, David

  1. Klansville, U.S.A.: The Rise and Fall of the Civil Rights-Era Ku Klux Klan. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Estes, Mary E.

  1. An Historical Survey of Lynchings in Oklahoma and Texas. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Norman, Oklahoma, University of Oklahoma.

González-Tennant, Edward

  1. The Rosewood Massacre: An Archaeology and History of Intersectional Violence. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.

Hartman, Saidiya V.

  1. Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-making in Nineteenth-Century America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Johnson, Walter

  1. The Broken Heart of America: St. Louis and the Violent History of the United States. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Krugler, David

  1. 1919, The Year of Racial Violence: How African Americans Fought Back. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Lancaster, Guy

  1. Nightriding and Racial Cleansing in the Arkansas River Valley. Arkansas Historical Quarterly 72 (3): 242–264.
  2. Racial Cleansing in Arkansas, 1883–1924: Politics, Land, Labor, and Criminality.   Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

LaRoche, Cheryl

  1. Free Black Communities and the Underground Railroad: The Geography of Resistance. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Littlefield, Daniel

  1. Seminole Burning: A Story of Racial Vengeance. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.

McWhirter, Cameron

  1. Red Summer: The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.

Muñoz Martinez, Monica 

  1. The Injustice Never Leaves You: Anti-Mexican Violence in Texas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Pfeifer, Michael J. 

  1. Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society 1874-1947. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Ralph, Sarah (editor)

  1. The Archaeology of Violence: Interdisciplinary Approaches. New York, NY: The State University of New York Press.

Wood, Amy L.

  1. Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890-1940. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Woodson, Evan

  1. Strange Fruit on the Southern Plains: Racial Violence, Lynching, and African Americans in Oklahoma, 1830-1930. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Stillwater, Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University.

CURRICULUM- Teaching Resources, Exhibits, and Databases

Equal Justice Initiative Map of Racial Terror Lynchings

“Lynching in America.” Equal Justice Initiative.

Mapping Anti-Mexican Violence in Texas 1900-1930

The Racial Violence Archive

Silenced Histories: The Archive of the Civil Rights and Restorative Justice Project, 1930-1955

Rosewood Heritage and VR Project

Monroe Work Today

A Red Record Lynching Sites in North Carolina

Mapping African American Travel During Jim Crow

The Texas Freedom Colonies Project

Black Placemaking in Texas Digital History

2020 Virtual All-Black Town Tour

Oklahoma Historical Society 2D Map

National Archives: Oklahoma Statehood Files, November 16, 1907