Photo from Library of Congress

READINGS- Books/Journals/Dissertations 

Braund, Kathryn E. Holland. 

1991. “The Creek Indians, Blacks, and Slavery.” The Journal of Southern History 57 (4): 601-636.

Burton, Art T.

2006. Black Gun, Silver Star: The Life and Legend of Frontier Marshal Bass Reeves. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Chang, David A.Y.O.

2010. The Color of the Land: Race, Nation, and the Politics of Landownership in Oklahoma. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Condray Searcy, Martha

1982. The Introduction of African Slavery into the Creek Indian Nation. The Georgia Historical Quarterly 66 (1): 21-32.

Ethridge, Robbie

2003. Creek Country: The Creek Indians and Their World. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Feldhousen-Giles, Kristy

2008. To Prove Who You Are: Freedmen Identities in Oklahoma. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Norman, Oklahoma, University of Oklahoma.

 Field, Kendra T.

2018. Growing Up with the Country: Family, Race, and Nation after the Civil War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Glasrud, Bruce A. and Michael N. Searles (editors)

2016. Black Cowboys in the American West: On the Range, On the Stage, Behind the Badge. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Grann, David

2017. Killers of the Flower Moon. The Osage Murders and the Birth of the FBI. New York, NY: Random House.

Grinde, Donald A. Jr and Quintard Taylor

1984. Red vs Black: Conflict and Accommodation in the Post-Civil War Indian Territory, 1865-1907. American Indian Quarterly 8 (3): 211-229.

Halliburton, Rudi

1997. Red Over Black: Black Slavery Among the Cherokee Indians. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Johnson, Hannibal

2012. Apartheid in Indian Country?: Seeing Red over Black Disenfranchisement. Waco, TX: Eakin Press.

Kenner Charles L.

1999. Buffalo Soldiers and Officers of the Ninth Cavalry, 1867-1898. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Krauthamer, Barbara

2013. Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation, and Citizenship in the Native American South. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

LaVere, David

2000. Contrary Neighbors: Southern Plains and Removed Indians in Indian Territory. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Leckie, William

1967. The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Negro Calvary in the West. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Littlefield, Daniel

1979. Africans and Creeks: From the Colonial Period to the Civil War.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

1980. The Chickasaw Freedmen: A People Without a Country. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

McLoughlin, William

1974. Red Indians, Black Slavery and White Racism: American’s Slaveholding Indians. American Quarterly 26(4): 367-385.

Mellinger, Philip

1971. “Discrimination and Statehood in Oklahoma,” The Chronicles of Oklahoma 49 (1).

Miles, Tiya

2015. Ties That Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.

Miles, Tiya and Sharon Holland

2006. Crossing Waters, Crossing Worlds: The African Diaspora in Indian Country. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Naylor, Celia

2008. African Cherokees in Indian Territory: From Chattel to Citizens. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Perdue, Theda

1979. Slavery and the Evolution of Cherokee society, 1540-1866. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press.

Saunt, Claudio

2000. Taking Account of Property: Stratification among the Creek Indians in the Early Nineteenth Century. The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Series, 57 (4) 733-760.

2005.  Black, White, and Indian: Race and the Unmaking of an American Family. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Snyder, Christina

2007. Conquered Enemies, Adopted Kin, and Owned People: The Creek Indians and Their Captives. The Journal of Southern History 73(2) 255-288.

Schubert, Frank

2003. Voices of the Buffalo Soldier: Records, Reports, and Recollections of Military Life and Service in the West. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.

Usner, Daniel H. Jr

1985. American Indians on the Cotton Frontier: Changing Economic Relations with Citizens and Slaves in the Mississippi Territory. The Journal of American History 72(2): 297-317.

Weik, Terrance (editor)

2019. The Archaeology of Removal in North America. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.

Wickett, Murray R.

2000. Contested Territory: Native Americans and African Americans in Oklahoma, 1865–1907. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.

Wilson, Walt

1971. “Freedmen in Indian Territory During Reconstruction,” The Chronicles of Oklahoma 49 (1).

Zellar, Gary

2007. African Creeks: Estelvste and the Creek Nation. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.