Photograph of the ashes of a burned out block after the Tulsa Race Massacre, c. 1921. Oklahoma Historical Society

READINGS- Books/Journals/Dissertations 

American Red Cross.

  1. Tulsa Race Riot Disaster Relief Report. American Red Cross, Tulsa Area Chapter

Brophy, Alfred L. 

  1. Reconstructing the Dreamland: The Tulsa Riot of 1921: Race, Reparations, and Reconciliation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, Kimberly C.

  1. We Look Like Men of War: Africana Male Narratives and the Tulsa Race Riot, War and Massacre of 1921. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. Lafayette, Indiana, Purdue University.

Ellsworth, Scott 

  1. Death in a Promised Land: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.

Forrester-Sellers, Julia

  1. The 1921 Tulsa Race Riot and the Politics of Memory. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Tulsa, Oklahoma University of Tulsa.

Gates, Eddie Faye

  1. Riot on Greenwood: The Total Destruction of Black Wall Street, 1921. Tulsa, OK: Out on a Limb Publishing.

Gill, Loren L.

  1. The Tulsa Race Riot. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Tulsa, Oklahoma, University of Tulsa.

Halliburton, Rudi Jr.

  1. The Tulsa Race War of 1921. San Francisco, CA: R and E Research Associates.
  2. The Tulsa Race War of 1921Journal of Black Studies, 2 (3): 333-357.

Hirsch, James S. 

  1. Riot and Remembrance: America’s Worst Race Riot and Its Legacy. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Hower, Robert N.

  1. 1921 Race Riot and the American Red Cross: Angels of Mercy. Tulsa, OK: Homestead Press.

Johnson, Hannibal

  1. 1998. Black Wall Street: From Riot to Renaissance in Tulsa’s Historic Greenwood District. Austin, TX: Eakin Press.

Jones Parrish, Mary E. 

1998 [1923]. Events of the Tulsa Disaster: An Eyewitness Account of the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot. Tulsa, OK: Out on a Limb Publishing. [originally published in 1923]

Krehbiel, Randy

  1. Tulsa, 1921: Reporting a Massacre. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Mackey, Joshua D. 

May 2019. “Breaking a Century of Silence: A Historiography of the Tulsa Race Riot.Fairmount Folio: Journal of HistoryVol.19. May 13, 2019.

Madigan, Tim

  1. The Burning: Massacre, Destruction, and the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921. New York, NY: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin’s Press.

Pitts Marsh, Corinda

  1. Holocaust in the Homeland: Black Wall Street’s Last Days. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Messer, Christopher M.

  1. The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921: Determining its Causes and Framing. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. Stillwater, Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University.

O’Brien, William M.

  1. Who Speaks for Us?: The Responsible Citizens of Tulsa in 1921. Jenks, OK: William O’Brien.

Streissguth, Thomas (editor)

  1. Reporting: The Tulsa Riot: 1921. St. Paul, MN: The Archive of American Journalism.

Tracy, Marjorie A. 

  1. The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921: The politics of lawlessness. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Tulsa, Oklahoma, University of Tulsa.

Tulsa Chamber of Commerce   

  1. The Riot — Cause And Effect in Tulsa, OK. The Tulsa Spirit: 6 (11).

Wheeler, Ed

  1. Profile of a Race Riot.Oklahoma Impact Magazine, (4): 14-26.

Williams I, Lee E. and Lee E. Williams II

  1. Anatomy of Four Race Riots: Racial Conflict in Knoxville, Elaine (Arkansas), Tulsa, and Chicago, 1919-1921.Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.

NEWS- Op-Eds/Recent Articles 

Brown, DeNeen L. 

They Was Killing Black People.” Washington Post. September 28, 2018. 

Chang, Natalie

The Massacre of Black Wall Street.” The Graphic Article sponsored by HBO Watchmen. November 23, 2019 

Cobb, Russell 

Shifting Collective Memory in Tulsa.” New York Times. February 11, 2020. 

Earley, Pete

The Untold Story of One of America’s Worst Race Riots.” New York Times. September 12, 1982. 

Gannon, Megan

Unearthing the True Toll of the Tulsa Race Massacre.Sapiens. May 22, 2020.

Johnson, Hannibal B.

As 1921’s Centennial Nears, There is a Reason for Hope in Tulsa’s Effort to Face its Painful History Positively”. Tulsa World. July 14, 2019. 

Keyes, Allison

A Long-Lost Manuscript Contains a Searing Eyewitness Account of the Tulsa Race Massacre of 1921”. Smithsonian Magazine. May 2016.  

Krehbiel, Randy

1921 Race Riot: Tribune Mystery Unsolved.” Tulsa World. May 31, 2002. 

McDonnell, Brandy

Tulsa Race Massacre to be examined on Sunday’s ‘60 Minutes’”. The Oklahoman. June 13, 2020. 

Myers, Lindsay

The Continual Erasure of Greenwood.” The New Tulsa Star. March 22, 2020.

Odewale, Alicia

New Efforts in Restorative Justice Archaeology: Tulsa, OK.” Society of Black Archaeologists Newsletter, 2(1): 12-13. January 13, 2020 

Staples, Brent

Unearthing a Riot.”New York Times. December 19, 1999

Unknown Author 

Timeline: The 1921 Tulsa Race MassacreTulsa World. May 25, 2020.  

Unknown Arthur 

“O.W. Gurley: ‘The Visionary Builder’.” Centennial Tulsa Pilgrimage 2021 

REPORTS- Meetings/Legal Docs/Preservation Efforts

Franklin, John Hope and Scott Ellsworth (editors)

  1. The Tulsa Race Riot: A Scientific, Historical and Legal Analysis. Oklahoma City, OK: Tulsa Race Riot Commission.

National Park Service

  1. 1921 Tulsa Race Riot Reconnaissance Survey. National Park Service, US Department of the Interior.

National Register of Historic Places

Mount Zion Baptist Church, Registration Form, Listed since July 2008

Mount Vernon African Methodist Episcopal, Listed since August 2018

Norris, Robert D.

  1. The Oklahoma National Guard and The Tulsa Race Riot Of 1921: A Historical, Tactical And Legal Analysis. Unpublished manuscript.

Oklahoma Historical Society

  1. Tulsa Race Riot: A Report by the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Race Riot of 1921. Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma Historical Society.

H.R. 95- Tulsa-Greenwood Race Riot Claims Accountability Act of 2007.  Hearing Before the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, And Civil Liberties Of The Committee on The Judiciary House of Representatives One Hundred Tenth Congress First Session On H.R. 1995. APRIL 24, 2007

CURRICULUM- Teaching Resources, Exhibits, and Databases

1921-2021 Tulsa Race Massacre Centennial Commission Resource Guide

Tulsa City-County Library African American Resource Center: Tulsa Race Massacre

Tulsa City-County Library Research Center: Tulsa and Oklahoma History Resources Guide

John Hope Franklin Center for Reconciliation Curriculum Resource Guide

Greenwood Cultural Center

The University of Tulsa McFarlin Library Special Collections: Tulsa Race Massacre Collection LibGuide

The University of Tulsa McFarlin Library Special Collections: Digital Photo Collection on Tulsa Race Relations 

Tulsa Historical Society and Museum: Tulsa Race Massacre Exhibit

Tulsa Historical Society and Museum Artifact Collection 

National Museum of African American History & Culture – Power of Place Exhibition (Tulsa collection)

Tulsa Community College: 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Resources

Digital Archives of the OSU-Tulsa Library: Ruth Sigler Avery Collection

MEDIA – Dramatic/Documentary Films/TV/Podcast

Clark, Nia

  1. Black Wall Street 1921.” Podcast.

CN8 Firm

  1. Terror in Tulsa: History Uncovered. FullMind

Duffin, Karen and Mary Childs

  1. Planet Money: Patent Racism.” NPR Radio Broadcast.

Emory University (featuring Dr. Carol Anderson)

  1. The Hidden History of the Quest for Civil Rights: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921.

Goodwyn, Wade

  1. New Discoveries Open Old Chapter in Tulsa Race Riots of 1921. NPR All Things Considered Radio Broadcast.

Jackson III., Harold 

  1. Burn: The Evolution of an American City. Salt2Light Productions

Johnson, Hannibal

  1. Black Wall Street Remembers. 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Centennial Commission

KTUL Staff 

  1. Channel 8 Holds Special Roundtable on 1921 Race Massacre: Tulsa’s Darkest Secret Town

Hall”. KTUL Channel 8 Broadcast.

Lee, Alicia and Sara Sidner

  1. 99 Years Ago Today, America was Shaken by One of its Deadliest Acts of Racial Violence”. Tulsa’s Black Wall Street Massacre. CNN Broadcast

Lindelof, Damon 

  1. Watchmen. HBO Limited Series.

Luckerson, Victor

Run it Back. (Biweekly newsletter about neglected black history)

Lyon, Rachel 

  1. Hate Crimes in the Heartland. Lioness Media Arts Inc.

Media Sanctuary

  1. Reclaiming Black Wall Street Then and Now. Podcast

Nelson, Stanley

  1. Greenwood and the Tulsa Race Riots”. Segment in Boss: The Black Experience in Business. PBS Broadcast. Firelight Films Production.

Oklahoma Historical Society

Through the Looking Glass Darkly, part I (1974)

 Through the Looking Glass Darkly, part II (1974)

 Through the Looking Glass Darkly, part III (1974)

Oklahoma Policy Institute

OKPolicy Cast 15: Oklahoma’s Racial Wealth Gap.

Pelley, Scott (Correspondent)

  1. Greenwood, 1921: One of the Worst Race Massacres in American History”. CBSNews/60 Minutes Broadcast.

Riggins, Dekoven and Marcus Brown

  1. Black Wall Street Burning. Notis Studios.

Simon, Bob

  1. Tulsa Burning. CBSNews 60 Minutes II.

Sound Effect Digital

  1. Survivors and Historians Remember Tulsa Race Riot of 1921. Podcast

Turner, Reggie

  1. Before They Die!: A Documentary About the Tulsa Race Riot Survivors!. Important Films, LLC.

Weller, Rob and Gary H. Grossman

  1. In Search of History: The Night Tulsa Burned. Weller and Grossman Productions. The History Channel Broadcast.

Wilkerson, Michael

  1. The Tulsa Lynching of 1921: A Hidden Story. Barrister Productions.



Askew, Rilla

2001. Fire in Beulah. New York, NY: Penguin Random House.

Ellison, Ralph

1986. Going to the Territory. New York, NY: Random House.

Johnson, Hannibal 

2000. Up from the Ashes. Eakin Press.

Latham, Jennifer

2017. Dreamland Burning. Hachette Book Group

Myers, Anna 

2004. Tulsa Burning. Fitzhenry and Whiteside publishers.

Parker Rhodes, Jewell

1997. Magic City. HarperCollins

Woodson, Jacqueline

2019. Red to the Bone. Riverhead Books


3 Penny Acre

2011. Rag and Bone. “Tulsa 1921”. Second String Records

Bailey, Bertrick O. “OmaleyB”

2019. Unsung 1921. “Kerosene”. 4uMedia. OmaleyB Entertainment.

2016. Unsung 1921. “We Died in Love”. 4uMedia. OmaleyB Entertainment.

Riggins, Dekoven

2020. Black Wall Street Burning (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack). Lotus Entertainment

Jacob Fred Jazz Odyssey (band name)

2011. Race Riot Suite. Kinnara Records

Performance Media

Byrd, Donald

 2019. Greenwood. Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater

Johnson, Hannibal

2005. Big Mama Speaks.

Tree, Dawn

Tulsa’s Black Wall Street: A Modernize Revelation.  Underground Tree Studios.


Johnson, Hannibal

2008. IncogNegro: Poetic Reflections on Race and Diversity in America. America Star Books

Padgett, Ron

Tulsa Race Riots, 1921